5 Standards of EV connectors

Five standards of EV connectors

With the release of policies in various countries: in the next few years, the development of electric vehicles will be vigorously promoted, and the production and sales of fuel vehicles will be reduced. The proportion of electric vehicles in the automotive industry will increase, and the construction of supporting basic charging facilities will also increase. The five EV charging standards are the Chinese standard based on GB/T 20234, the European standard Type 2 and CCS 2 of IEC 62196, the North American standard Type 1 and CCS 1 of J1772, the daily standard of CHAdeMO and the Tesla standard of NACS.Next, we will talk about the differences in standard EV connectors in different regions.

01 Chinese charging standard (EV connectors)

The reference standard parts of China’s electric vehicle standard charging connector and handshake circuit are GB/T 20234 and GB/T 18487.1 respectively.

Among them, the maximum voltage of the AC charging connector is three-phase 440V AC and the maximum current is 63A AC; while the maximum voltage of DC charging is 1000V DC,

and the maximum current is 300A DC under natural cooling, and the maximum current is 800A DC under active cooling. (Active cooling is new to the revision and not yet released).

Table 1 Ratings of the AC charging connector
Rated voltage V Rated current A
250 10/16/32
440 16/32/63
Table 2 Ratings of the DC charging connector
Rated voltage V Rated current A
750/1000 80
125
200
250
Table 3 Electrical parameter values and function definitions of AC contacts
Contact Connector Function Rated voltage and rated current function definition
1 (L1) 250V 10A/16A/32 AC power (single phase)
440V 10A/16A/32 AC power (three-phase)
2 (L2) 440V 10A/16A/32 AC power (three-phase)
3 (L3) 440V 10A/16A/32 AC power (three-phase)
4 (N) 250V 10A/16A/32 AC power (single phase)
440V 10A/16A/32 AC power (three-phase)
5 (Ground) Protective earth (PE), connects the ground wire of the power supply equipment and the electric platform of the vehicle
6 (CC) 0V~30V 2A Charging Connection Confirmation
7 (CP) 0V~30V 2A control guide
Table 4 Electrical parameter values and function definitions of DC contacts

Contact

Connector Function Rated voltage and rated current

function definition

1

(DC+)

750V/1000V 80A/125A/200A/250A

DC power supply positive, connect DC power supply positive and battery positive

2

(DC-)

750V/1000V 80A/125A/200A/250A

DC power supply negative, connect DC power negative and battery negative

3

(Ground)

Protective earth (PE), connects the ground wire of the power supply equipment and the electric platform of the vehicle

4

(S+)

0V~32V 2A

Charging communication CAN_H, the communication line connecting off-board chargers and electric vehicles

5

(S-)

0V~32V 2A

Charging communication CAN_L, the communication line connecting off-board chargers and electric vehicles
6 (CC1) 0V~32V 2A Charging Connection Confirmation
7 (CC2) 0V~32V 2A Charging Connection Acknowledgment
8 (A+) 0V~32V 20A Resist the positive auxiliary power supply, connect the off-board charger to provide low-voltage auxiliary power supply for electric vehicles
9 (A-) 0V~32V 20A Resist the negative of the auxiliary power supply, connect the off-board charger to provide low-voltage auxiliary power for electric vehicles

GBT

AC GB/T                                                                                    DC GB/T

02 European charging standard (EV connectors)

The voltage range in Europe is similar to that in China. The charging connector CCS2 is in the same line as the American standard CCS1, but there are still some changes. The maximum AC voltage of the European standard is 480V AC, and the maximum current is 63A; the maximum DC voltage is 1000V DC, and the maximum current is 200A DC (based on the data of the 2014 version, the new standard of the 2022 version has not yet been obtained).

Table 5-Configuration types and standard sheets

Configuration type

Standard Sheet Applicable accessories Rated voltage

V

Rated current

A

Phase

1

2-Ⅰ Vehicle couplers 250 32 Single-phase

2

2-Ⅱ

Accessories

250

70 Single-phase

480

63

Three-phase

3

2-Ⅲ Accessories 250 16

Single-phase

250

32

Single-phase

480 63

Three-phase

Table 6-Interface Overview

Configuration

Dimensions described in Max. Rated Voltage

Vd.c

Max. Rated Current

A

Shall only be used with d.c.

charging station according to

AA

BB

EE

FF

Standard Sheets 3-Ⅰ

Standard Sheets 3-Ⅱ

Standard Sheets 3-Ⅲ

Standard Sheets 3-IV

600

750

600

1000

200

250

200

200

IEC 61851-23:2014.Annex AA

IEC 61851-23:2014,Annex BB

IEC 61851-23:2014,Annex CC

IEC 61851-23:2014,Annex CC

type

AC Type 2                                                           DC CCS 2

03 North American charging standard (EV connectors)

The North American charging standard is mainly used in the United States and Canada. The maximum AC voltage is 240V AC and the maximum current is 80A AC; the maximum DC voltage is 1000V DC and the maximum current is 400A DC.

Table 7 AC charging electrical ratings (North America)

Charge Method

Nominal Supply Voltage

(V)

Max Current

(Amps-continuous)

Branch Circuit Breaker

rating (Amps)

AC Level 1

120 Y AC,1-phase

120 Y AC.1-phase

12A

16A

15 A(min)

20A

AC Level 2

208 to 240 V AC,1-phase S80A

Per NEC 625

Table 8 DC charging electrical ratings (North America)

Charge Method

EVSE DC Output Voltage

(VDC)

Max Current

(Amps-continuous)

DC Level 1

50-1000

80

DC Level 2 50-1000

400

Table 9 AC level 1 and AC level 2 conductive coupler contact functions

Contact #

Connector Function   Vehicle Inlet Function 

 Description

1

L1 AC

Power

Power for AC Levels 1 and 2

2

N-AC Level 1,L2- AC Level 2

Power

Power for AC Levels 1 and 2

3

Equipment ground

Chassis ground

Connect EVSE  equipment  grounding  conductor  to EV/PHEV chassis  ground  during  charging

 

4

Control pilot

Control pilot

Primary control conductor (operation described in inSection  5.2.1)

 

5

Proximity Detection Proximity Detection

Allows vehicle to detect the presence of charge connector

Table 10 DC level 1 and DC level 2 conductive coupler contact functions

Contact #

Connector Function   Vehicle Inlet Function 

 Description

1

+DC Level 1 Power

Power

+Power for DC Level 1

2

-DC Level 1 Power

Power

-Power for DC Level 1

3

Equipment ground

Chassis ground

Connect EVSE equipment grounding conductor to EV/PHEV chassis ground during charging

4

Control pilot

Control pilot

Primary control conductor (operation described in Section 5)

5

Proximity Detection

Proximity Detection

Allows vehicle to detect presence of charge connector

6

+DC Level 2 Power

Power

+Power for DC Level 2

7

-DC Level 2 Power

Power

-Power for DC Level 2

type 2

AC Type 1                                                               DC CCS 2

 

04 Japan’s charging standard

Japan’s charging standard is quite special, the AC adopts the American standard J1772 standard, while the DC adopts the CHAdeMO standard. J1772 has been mentioned before, and the following will mainly talk about the CHAdeMO standard.

CHAdeMO is a DC plug jointly developed by five Japanese automakers and attempted to promote it as a global standard starting in 2010, but it has not been widely adopted. Even so, there are quite a few countries or regions that currently adopt CHAdeMO connectors. Except for Japan, most of them are installed in Europe (mostly in Northern Europe), the United States, and South Korea. There are two versions of the CHAdeMO standard.

 

Table 11 Electrical parameter values and function definitions of DC contacts

Connector Function Vehicle Inlet function Description
FG Ground Reference for control lines
SS1/SS2 Charge sequence signal Start/stop charging
N/C (not connected)
DCP Charging enable Vehicle grants EVSE permission to connect power
DC+/DC- DC power Supplied power
PP Connector proximity detection Charge interlock, disables drivetrain while connected
C-H/C-L CAN bus Communication with vehicle bus to establish operational parameters

CHAdeMO

CHAdeMO

05 Tesla charging standard

The common charging standard in the United States is J1772. The only exception is Tesla, which has developed a dedicated charging connector for charging Tesla electric vehicles. Tesla announced its own NACS standard on November 11, 2022, and everyone is welcome to use it.

NACS is an AC and DC integrated socket. Due to the limitation of the connector, NACS also has a limitation, that is, it cannot be compatible with AC three-phase power. This also makes it unusable in countries or regions that use three-phase alternating current such as China and Europe.

The connector circuit of NACS is exactly the same as the connector circuit of CCS. For the onboard control and detection unit (OBC or BMS) circuit of the original CCS standard connector, there is no need to redesign and layout, and it is fully compatible. This is beneficial to the promotion of NACS.

Of course, there is no restriction on communication, and it is fully compatible with the requirements of IEC 15118.

The maximum voltage of NACS is 1000V DC, and the maximum current is 400A DC; the AC is consistent with J1772.

Tesla

Tesla

06 Summary

Generally speaking, each charging standard is applicable to different countries and regions, and the EV connectors, communication protocol, and certification requirements are also different, which has brought some troubles to the production and sales of automobiles, as well as the production and construction of charging piles.

Automobile manufacturers and charging facility manufacturers and operators need to choose the appropriate charging EV connectors according to the standard requirements of different regions, so as to provide products that meet the regulatory requirements and compatibility of the regions where they are sold, and better serve users.

It should be noted that due to the continuous development of the electric vehicle market and the continuous advancement of technology, charging standards are also constantly being updated and evolving.

Therefore, new charging standards may appear in the future, and automakers and charging facility operators need to pay close attention to market dynamics and adjust their strategies and layouts in time to adapt to market changes.

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