Flying is a common experience for many people. However, do you know how to do plane refueling?
When it comes to plane refueling, many people will think of fueling cars,
inserting fuel nozzles, and pulling out fuel nozzles… Wait, this is definitely different!
A seemingly simple refueling operation has complicated and strict procedures, and there can be no slack.
First of all, there is a lot of attention to the way of refueling.
At present, large aircraft use “underwing refueling”, and small aircraft use “over-wing refueling”.
“On-wing refueling” refers to the use of gravity refueling. The aviation fuel is delivered to the refueling port through the oil pump on the tanker,
and the aviation fuel flows into the aircraft fuel tank by gravity.
“Underwing refueling” refers to the use of pressure refueling, relying on the pressure difference provided by the oil pump as the driving force,
and under the effect of pump pressure, refueling the oil tank through the refueling pipe.
Plane refueling methods include:
1. Ground refueling.
The refueling of aircraft with aircraft ground refueling equipment and facilities shall be organized and implemented by the aviation station.
The former is to drive the fuel dispensers to the aircraft parking place to refuel the aircraft,
which is mostly used to refuel the aircraft parked in the shelter (hangar) or on the apron.
The latter mainly uses aircraft pipeline refueling facilities to refuel aircraft taxiing or towing to refueling sites.
2. Aerial refueling.
The use of air-fuel dispensers to refuel aircraft in flight shall be organized and implemented by the air-fuel dispensers force.
The modes include shuttle, rendezvous, companion, and passing. In the case of transfer refueling,
the receiving aircraft will be transported and refueled by a fuel dispenser at the airport of departure and landing on the way to take off and return (or transfer),
which is mostly used for long-distance mobile transfer.
During rendezvous refueling
Select one or more airspace refueling points on the scheduled route of the tanker,
and the tanker will arrive at the scheduled point on time and merge with the tanker to implement refueling,
which is mostly used for long-distance operations and transitions.
In the case of accompanying refueling,
the fuel dispenser and the dispenser form a formation to accompany the dispenser throughout the flight and refuel the tanker during the flight,
which is mostly used for long-distance attack operations.
During the past refueling, the fuel dispenser will fly to the predetermined airspace in advance to refuel the past fuel dispenser, which is mostly used to support large-scale operations or aircraft carrying out rescue missions.
When carrying out air refueling, multiple methods are often used in combination.
The refueling equipment used in air refueling includes a hard tube (telescopic sleeve) type and a hose (plug cone sleeve) type.
When using the hard tube type equipment to refuel, the retractable metal oil delivery pipe extends from the lower part of the rear of the fuel dispenser and is inserted into the oil receiving port of the fuel dispenser,
and the refueling starts after the automatic locking.
When using hose-type equipment to refuel, open the winch locking mechanism, discharge the oil delivery hose and cone sleeve, align the oil receiving pipe of the oil receiver and insert the expanded cone sleeve, and then refuel automatically.
3. Carrier aircraft refueling.
The onboard refueling equipment is used to refuel the onboard aircraft, which is organized and implemented by the onboard supply or electromechanical department.
When the carrier refueling plane, the carrier aircraft stops on the flight deck or landing platform of the ship to refuel.
Aircraft refueling requires high quality, large quantity, and complex organization and implementation.
The implementation procedure is generally divided into three stages: preparation, implementation, and completion.
1. Preparation stage. According to the flight mission, formulate the aircraft refueling implementation plan, determine the on-duty personnel and division of labor, calculate the type and quantity of fuel, select the refueling method and the refueling equipment used, and check the fuel quality and equipment performance, so as to prepare for refueling support.
2. Implementation stage. Implement refueling in strict accordance with operating procedures.
3. End stage. After the flight is over, the site shall be cleaned up in time and the settlement shall be registered. When it is necessary to continuously refuel the next flight, do a good job of shift handover.