Principle and classification of the Pressure regulator

The pressure regulator is a pressure-regulating device composed of detection components, transmission components, control components, and actuators.

According to the operating principle, it is divided into two categories: direct-acting type and indirect-acting type.

The adjusted medium directly provides all the cooling capacity the direct-acting actuator uses.

The indirect action type is to amplify the output signal of the detection element (transmitted by the modulated medium) to make the actuator operate,

and the energy of the sensor (such as the pilot) to amplify the output signal comes from the modulated medium itself or the external supply medium.

Pressure regulator

From the analysis of the self-control principle:

The Pressure regulator and the pipe network connected to it can be regarded as a self-adjusting system. The role of the pressure regulator in this system is to compare the outlet pressure with the set value of a given device (such as the spring force of the pilot) through the sensor when the outlet pressure fluctuates due to downstream working conditions and compare the resulting deviation signal. According to a certain regulation rule, the valve action of the actuator is driven to introduce an increment of gas with a pressure of P at the pipe inlet upstream of the Pressure regulator, and finally, the outlet pressure is restored to stability. Since the working conditions (flow and pressure) in the pipeline network system change at any time, the pressure self-adjusting system maintains the relative stability of the pipeline network pressure through continuous micro-adjustment. This dynamic adjustment process is an attenuated oscillation process, and the final static difference is small.

In practical applications, it is often encountered that an increase in flow downstream of a pressure regulator causes an instantaneous pressure drop in the pipe network. The size of the pressure drop depends on the speed of the interference that causes the flow change and the flow characteristics of the pipe itself. If a Pressure regulator with the same flow characteristics encounters a rapid flow change (approximately step interference), the outlet pressure will fluctuate greatly. However, the outlet pressure fluctuation will be relatively small if the response rate is faster than the flow rate change rate.

Direct-acting Pressure regulator:

Direct-acting Pressure regulator

With high stability and adaptability, direct-acting pressure regulators are equipped with time-delay control devices, such as vents or additional pressure stabilizing valves, pulse tubes, and compensation diaphragms. The structural diagram is shown in the figure.

 Indirect action (pilot control) type Pressure regulator:

Indirect action (pilot control) type Pressure regulator

The indirect-acting (pilot-controlled) pressure regulator is usually used in pipeline network systems that require precise control and regulation of air pressure. Its structural diagram is shown in the figure.

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